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《最高人民法院关于加强区块链司法应用的意见》全文(中英文版)
  • 来源:最高人民法院
  • 发布时间:2022-05-25 14:14:39

  法发〔2022〕16号

  最高人民法院

  关于加强区块链司法应用的意见

  为深入贯彻落实习近平法治思想和习近平总书记关于积极推动区块链技术为人民群众提供更加智能、更加便捷、更加优质公共服务的重要指示精神,贯彻落实《中华人民共和国国民经济和社会发展第十四个五年规划和2035年远景目标纲要》和《“十四五”国家信息化规划》,充分发挥区块链在促进司法公信、服务社会治理、防范化解风险、推动高质量发展等方面的作用,全面深化智慧法院建设,推进审判体系和审判能力现代化,结合人民法院工作实际,制定本意见。

  一、 总体要求

  (一) 指导思想。以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导,深入贯彻习近平法治思想和习近平总书记关于网络强国的重要思想,紧紧围绕“努力让人民群众在每一个司法案件中感受到公平正义”的目标,坚持服务大局、司法为民、公正司法,大力推动区块链技术与多元解纷、诉讼服务、审判执行和司法管理工作深度融合,积极应用区块链平台服务社会治理、优化营商环境、加强诚信体系建设、防范化解重大风险、支持构建新发展格局,努力创造更高水平的数字正义。

  (二) 总体目标。到2025年,建成人民法院与社会各行各业互通共享的区块链联盟,形成较为完备的区块链司法领域应用标准体系,数据核验、可信操作、智能合约、跨链协同等基础支持能力大幅提升;区块链在多元解纷、诉讼服务、审判执行和司法管理工作中得到全面应用,有效促进司法公信,提升司法效率,强化廉洁司法;司法区块链跨链联盟融入经济社会运行体系,实现与政法、工商、金融、环保、征信等多个领域跨链信息共享和协同,主动服务营商环境优化、经济社会治理、风险防范化解和产业创新发展,助力平安中国、法治中国、数字中国和诚信中国建设,形成中国特色、世界领先的区块链司法领域应用模式,为新时代我国经济社会数字化转型和高质量发展提供坚强有力的司法服务和保障。

  (三) 基本原则

  坚持依法统筹、注重协同联动。依法依规加强区块链基础设施统筹规划,面向经济社会发展和审判执行工作需要,开展区块链司法领域应用顶层设计,加强与各行各业跨链协同应用模式研究,促进多方数据共享和协同应用。

  坚持开放共享、注重标准先行。建设与社会各行各业互通共享的区块链联盟,形成共性基础技术支持能力,建立统一、开放的区块链司法领域应用技术标准体系,为跨部门节点接入、跨行业数据共同维护和利用提供规范化服务。

  坚持应用牵引、注重创新发展。以司法为民、公正司法和服务社会治理为牵引,充分发挥区块链在优化业务流程、提升协同效率、建设可信体系等方面的作用,持续推进区块链在司法领域深度应用,不断提高跨领域自动执行能力。

  坚持安全可靠、注重有序推进。以安全可信为前提,着力提升上链数据和智能合约的准确可控水平,确保数据安全,保护个人信息,推动形成区块链在司法领域稳中求进、有序发展、安全可靠的应用生态。

  二、 人民法院区块链平台建设要求

  (四) 加强区块链应用顶层设计。遵照法律规范要求,按照内外部高效协同的总体思想,针对法院业务应用和服务社会治理协同应用需求,系统开展区块链在司法领域应用的场景设计。针对内、外网协同应用需求,形成全国统一、支持跨网系、跨链协同司法应用的区块链总体建设方案。

  (五) 持续推进跨链协同应用能力建设。针对主动服务经济社会治理和司法业务应用场景,构建基于分布式标识、互联互通、跨链互信的区块链联盟基础设施,有效整合执行区块链已有建设成果,充分发挥联盟链技术特点,加强司法区块链平台与各行业区块链平台跨链联盟建设,持续提升协同能力。

  (六) 提升司法区块链技术能力。联合优势力量,开展关键技术攻关,打造开放共享的全国法院司法区块链平台,提高数据核验、可信操作、智能合约、跨链协同等基础技术能力,支持各级人民法院基于司法链平台开展业务创新应用。

  (七) 建设互联网司法区块链验证平台。基于全国司法区块链平台数据,在互联网端建设司法区块链验证平台,支持当事人等相关主体对调解数据、电子证据、诉讼文书等司法数据进行真伪核验。

  (八) 建立健全标准规范体系。建立健全区块链在司法领域应用的技术标准和管理规范,为与相关领域区块链平台和节点接入互通、共享协同提供技术指引和标准接口支持。

  三、 充分运用区块链数据防篡改技术,进一步提升司法公信力

  (九) 保障司法数据安全。推进人民法院电子卷宗、电子档案、司法统计报表、案件结案状态等司法数据上链存储,确保司法数据防篡改,提升数据安全水平。

  (十) 保障电子证据可信。健全完善区块链平台证据核验功能,支持当事人和法官在线核验通过区块链存储的电子证据,推动完善区块链存证的标准和规则,提升电子证据认定的效率和质量。

  (十一) 保障执行操作合规。推动执行案件信息、当事人信息、组织机构信息、执行通知、财产查控、财产处置、案款收发、信用惩戒、执法取证、执行互动、案件报结、卷宗归档等数据和操作上链存证,常态化开展执行全业务流程操作安全审计,进一步规范执行操作行为,探索开展执行查控等敏感操作在线闭环验证,确保可靠无误。

  (十二) 保障司法文书权威。推动人民法院送达的诉讼文书和送达回执在司法区块链平台统一存储,支持在互联网端查验送达文书,保证送达全流程安全可靠,维护司法权威。

  四、 充分发挥区块链优化业务流程的重要作用,不断提高司法效率

  (十三) 支持立案信息流转应用。建立立案登记材料分级分类自动流转业务规则,支持在材料提交限定期满后案件实现分级分类自动立案,巩固立案登记制改革成果,提高立案效率。

  (十四) 支持调解与审判流程衔接应用。建立调解协议不履行自动触发审判立案、执行立案等业务规则和智能合约程序,增强调解程序司法权威,支持多元纠纷化解。

  (十五) 支持审判与执行流程衔接联动。全面推进审判与执行办案系统信息互通和数据共享,探索建立裁判文书不履行自动触发执行立案等业务规则和联动机制,优化审执衔接,畅通信息流转,减少重复工作,支持切实破解执行难。

  (十六) 支持提升执行效率。探索建立符合条件的执行案件自动发起查询、冻结、扣划以及执行案款自动发放智能合约机制,在确保程序合规的前提下简化审批环节;建立对统查财产线索足额终本案件、对不履行义务的执行和解案件,无需单独提起立案流程即可自动立案恢复执行的智能合约机制。

  (十七) 支持执行干警便捷办案。运用区块链技术推动网络查控、评估拍卖、案款收发、失信限消、事项委托、电子卷宗随案生成等向移动端延伸,形成去中心化、去网系化、去系统化的数据串联,方便执行干警随时随地办理执行事务。

  五、 充分挖掘区块链互通联动的巨大潜力,增强司法协同能力

  (十八) 提高律师资质验证协同能力。针对律师资质验证需求,构建人民法院与司法行政部门跨链协同应用,支持实现参与诉讼活动的律师资质、信用报告在线查询及核验,提高核验实时性。

  (十九) 提高政法部门案件协同办理能力。针对减刑假释、刑事、民商事等案件跨部门协同办理和公民身份认证等需求,构建人民法院与检察、公安、司法行政等部门的跨链协同应用,提高案件在线流转效率和数据互信水平。

  (二十) 提高跨部门协同执行能力。针对被执行人财产查控、失信被执行人联合惩戒等需求,构建人民法院与行政执法、不动产登记、金融证券保险机构、联合信用惩戒等单位的跨链协同应用,建立自动化执行查控和信用惩戒模式,提高协同执行工作效率。

  六、 充分利用区块链联盟互认可信的价值属性,服务经济社会治理

  (二十一) 保护知识产权。构建与版权、商标、专利等知识产权区块链平台的跨链协同机制,支持对知识产权的权属、登记、转让等信息的查询核验,为知识产权案件的证据认定等提供便利,更好地服务国家创新驱动战略实施。

  (二十二) 支持营商环境优化。构建与市场监管、产权登记和交易平台等区块链平台的跨链协同应用机制,支持对企业基本信息、企业股权变动、企业间关联关系、不动产和动产权属状况、融资租赁、贵金属交易等权属登记和交易状况信息的查询核验,为权属认定和产权交易提供便利,促进基于数据与信用的分级分类监管体系建设,更好地服务国家营商环境建设。

  (二十三) 支持数据开发利用。构建与数据权属、数据交易等区块链平台的跨链协同应用机制,支持对数据确权、数据交易等过程信息的查询核验和智能合约处置,助力数据要素市场构建和数据价值释放,更好地服务国家大数据战略实施。

  (二十四) 支持金融信息流转应用。构建与金融机构区块链平台的跨链协同应用机制,支持对金融贷款合同、信用卡等审批、履行、违约过程信息的查询核验和智能合约处置,更好地服务金融风险防范化解。

  (二十五) 支持企业破产重组。构建与相关政府部门区块链平台的跨链协同应用机制,支持对债务人企业的经营信息和涉诉涉执行信息互通共享,支持债权申报信息在线验证质证,在保障全体债权人知情权和查阅权的同时,强化债权审核公开透明,并进一步确保网络债权人会议的表决效力,更好地服务市场主体救治和退出。

  (二十六) 支持征信体系建设。构建与全国信用信息共享平台、国家企业信用信息公示系统和失信惩戒部门的跨链协同应用机制,支持对失信被执行人、限制高消费信息的查询核验和智能合约处置,确保失信信息可信产生、安全传播和合规使用,更好地发挥联合失信惩戒作用,助力健全以信用为基础的新型监管机制,服务社会信用体系建设。

  七、 保障措施

  (二十七) 加强组织领导。各级人民法院要高度重视区块链在司法领域的建设和应用,加强统筹协调,明确任务牵头部门负责区块链应用整体推进和管理。

  (二十八) 建立协同机制。各级人民法院要统筹辖区区块链应用重点,联合其他政法单位、社会机构等力量强化协同工作机制,共同推进区块链在司法领域的应用。

  (二十九) 加大支持力度。各级人民法院要将区块链应用工作纳入智慧法院建设规划统筹组织实施,并与地方政府社会治理创新相结合,争取经费支持,加大推进力度。

  (三十) 注重应用示范。各级人民法院要面向服务经济社会发展和人民法院业务需求,选择较为成熟的应用场景开展典型应用示范,形成可复制、可推广的创新模式。

  (三十一) 确保安全可靠。各级人民法院要健全事前审核和测试评估机制,确保上链数据真实性、准确性、合规性以及链上链下数据一致性,确保智能合约的合法性、有效性、安全性和可靠性。

  (三十二) 积极宣传引导。各级人民法院要加强成功案例宣传推介,面向法院干警开展区块链技术应用培训,全面提升区块链在司法领域的应用成效。

  最高人民法院

  2022年5月23日

  Opinions of the Supreme People’s Court

  on Strengthening Blockchain Application

  in the Judicial Field

  The Opinions are herein made for further implementation of the Xi Jinping Thought on the Rule of Law and General Secretary Xi Jinping’s instructions on actively promoting the application of blockchain technology to provide more intelligent, convenient and superior public services for the people, and for the earnest fulfillment of the Outline of the 14th Five-Year Plan (2021-2025) for National Economic and Social Development and the Long-Range Objectives through the Year 2035 of the People’s Republic of China and the 14th Five-Year Plan (2021-2025) for National Informatization. While taking the real work of the people’s courts into consideration, the Opinions aim to leverage the role of blockchain in cementing judicial credibility, facilitating social governance, preventing and resolving risks, promoting high-quality development, etc., so as to reinforce the advance of smart courts on all fronts and the modernization of the judicial system and judicial capabilities.

  I. Overall requirements

  (1) Guiding philosophies. Concentrating on the goal of “working to ensure that the people feel fairness and justice prevails in every judicial case”, the Opinions, under the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, endeavor to thoroughly implement Xi Jinping Thought on the Rule of Law and on building China’s strength in cyberspace, and are committed to serving the overall interests, administrating justice for the people and maintaining judicial fairness. The Opinions intend to vigorously promote in-depth integration between blockchain technology and diversified dispute resolution, litigation services, trial and enforcement and judicial administration. People’s courts in China need to actively utilize the blockchain platform to facilitate social governance, optimize business environment, cement the development of the credit system, prevent and resolve major risks and underpin the establishment of a new development paradigm, sparing no efforts to elevate digital justice to a higher level.

  (2) Overall objectives. By 2025, a blockchain alliance featuring interconnectivity and sharing between the people’s courts and all social sectors will come into being and a relatively complete standard system for blockchain application in the judicial field will be in place with the capabilities for fundamental support for data verification, trusted operation, smart contract, interoperation collaboration, etc. to be dramatically improved. Moreover, diversified dispute resolution, litigation services, trial and enforcement, and judicial administration will witness the comprehensive application of blockchain technology which effectively enhances judicial credibility, efficiency and integrity. By then, the judicial blockchain interoperation alliance is to be integrated into the economic and social operation system, enabling interoperation information sharing and coordination with the political and legal, industrial and commercial, financial, environmental, social credit and other sectors, which will actively contribute to the improvement of business environment, economic and social governance, risk prevention and resolution, and industrial innovation and development, back China to become a peaceful, digital and credit-based country under the rule of law, foster a world-leading model of blockchain application in the judicial field with Chinese characteristics, providing superior judicial services and solid guarantee for China’s economic and social digital transformation and high-quality development in the new era.

  (3) Basic principles.

  Pursuing law-based coordination and emphasizing collaboration and interconnectivity. It is necessary to strengthen overall planning of blockchain infrastructure in accordance with laws and regulations and carry out top-level design of blockchain application in the judicial field in view of the needs of economic and social development as well as that of trial and enforcement. Research on interoperation collaborative application models with all walks of life should be intensified to promote data sharing and collaborative application between different parties.

  Upholding openness and sharing and prioritizing standards. It is necessary to build a blockchain alliance with interconnectivity and sharing among all social sectors, develop capabilities to support common fundamental technologies, establish a unified and open technical standard system for blockchain application in the judicial field, making standardized services available to cross-departmental node access and joint maintenance and utilization of data across different industries.

  Underlining application and valuing innovation-based development. Guided by the principles of administrating justice for the people, maintaining judicial fairness and facilitating social governance, it is necessary to give full play to the function of the blockchain in business process optimization, operation cost reduction, collaborative efficiency improvement, trusted system establishment, and other fields. Consistent efforts are required to promote the in-depth application of blockchain in the judicial field and to improve the performance of blockchain in cross-domain automatic enforcement.

  Ensuring security and reliability and highlighting orderly progress. On the premise of security and trustworthiness, it is necessary to work hard to improve the accuracy and controllability of stored data and smart contracts on the blockchain, ensure data security, and protect personal information, in a bid to foster an environment of blockchain application in the judicial field with steady progress, orderly development, security and reliability.

  II. Requirements on building the blockchain platforms of the people’s courts

  (4) Strengthening top-level design of blockchain application. In accordance with laws and norms, and the overarching concept of internal and external efficient collaboration, it is required to systematically design the scenarios of blockchain application in the judicial field in response to the needs of coordinating the court work with the improvement of social governance. In view of the needs of collaboration between internal and external networks, an overall plan for building a blockchain that is unified nationwide, enables inter-network and interoperation judicial application should be developed.

  (5) Constantly advancing capacity building for interoperation collaborative application. In order to actively serve the economic and social governance and application scenarios of judicial work, it is required to build the infrastructure of the blockchain alliance based on distributed identification, interconnectivity, and interoperation mutual trust, effectively integrate the enforcement blockchain construction achievements, give full play to the technical strengths of the alliance chain, and boost the development of the interoperation alliance of the judicial blockchain platform and that of all walks of life so as to constantly enhance synergy.

  (6) Enhancing technical capabilities of the judicial blockchain. It is required to gather superior strengths to make a breakthrough in key technologies, create an open and shared judicial blockchain platform among people’s courts nationwide, improve basic technical capabilities such as data verification, trusted operation, smart contract and interoperation collaboration, etc., and support people’s courts at all levels to engage in innovative application based on the judicial blockchain platform.

  (7) Building an Internet-based judicial blockchain verification platform. Based on the data of the national judicial blockchain platform, it is required to build a judicial blockchain verification platform on the Internet, which enables parties and other relevant subjects to verify the authenticity of mediation data, electronic evidence, litigation documents and other judicial data.

  (8) Establishing and optimizing a standard system. It is required to establish and optimize the technical standards and management specification for the application of blockchain in the judicial field, and provide technical guidance and standardized access support for the interconnectivity, sharing and collaboration with blockchain platforms and nodes in relevant fields.

  III. Making the most of the data tamper-proof technology of blockchain to further enhance judicial credibility

  (9) Ensuring the security of judicial data. Judicial data of the people’s courts, including electronic case files, electronic archives, judicial statistical reports and the status of concluding cases, are expected to be stored on the blockchain, to make sure the judicial data are tamper-proof and enhance data security.

  (10) Ensuring trustworthiness of electronic evidence. It is necessary to perfect the evidence verification function of the blockchain platform, which enables parties and judges to verify the electronic evidence stored on the blockchain online, so as to contribute to setting sound standards and rules for blockchain-based storage and improve the efficiency and quality of electronic evidence identification.

  (11) Ensuring compliance of enforcement operations. It is necessary to store data and operations, such as information on enforcement cases, information of parties and organizations, notice of enforcement, investigation and control of property, disposal of property, collection and distribution of money related to the cases, credit-based punishment, evidence collection, interactions of enforcement, reporting and conclusion of cases, archiving of cases on the blockchain, regularly carry out a security audit on operation of the whole process to enhance the normativity of enforcement operations, and consider the method of online closed-loop examination of sensitive operations such as investigation and control in enforcement, so as to make sure reliability and accuracy.

  (12) Ensuring the authority of judicial instruments. It is necessary to uniformly store litigation documents served by the people’s courts and receipts of service on the judicial blockchain platform, and allow online verification of served documents to make sure the security and reliability of the whole process of service, so as to eliminate concerns of the parties about the authenticity of served information and maintain the authority of judicial instruments being served.

  IV. Giving full play of the essential role of blockchain in optimizing business processes to constantly improve judicial efficiency

  (13) Enabling circulation and application of case-filing information. It is necessary to set operational rules on the classification and categorization and later automatic circulation of documents to be docketed so as to achieve the automatic docketing of cases after their classification and categorization upon the expiry of the prescribed period for submission of materials, consolidate the fruits of the reform on case-filing registration system and improve case-filing efficiency.

  (14) Enabling connected application between mediation and trial procedures. It is necessary to set operational rules on automatically triggering the trial procedure or the enforcement procedure upon the failure to perform mediation agreements and launch the smart contract procedure, so as to cement judicial authority of the mediation procedure and support diversified dispute resolution.

  (15) Enabling the connection between trial and enforcement procedures. It is necessary to comprehensively advance the interoperability and sharing of information and data between trial and enforcement case handling systems, and explore the possibility of making rules and linkage mechanisms on automatically triggering the enforcement procedure upon the failure to perform judicial decisions, so as to optimize the convergence from trial to enforcement, ensure the information is transformed smoothly, reduce duplicate work and solve the problems of enforcement difficulties.

  (16) Enhancing the efficiency of enforcement. It is necessary to explore the possibility of establishing a smart contract mechanism to automatically investigate, freeze and seize property in eligible enforcement cases and distribute money related to the enforcement cases, so as to simplify the approval process under the premise of ensuring procedural compliance; establishing a smart contract mechanism to automatically file a case and resume enforcement without filing a separate case for cases where the enforcement procedure was suspended after the enforcement of the whole property discovered by unified investigation clues and settlement cases of enforcement for non-fulfillment of obligations.

  (17) Enabling enforcement officers and police staff to handle cases more conveniently. It is necessary to utilize blockchain technology to promote the extension to mobile ends and formation of decentralized, de-networked, de-systematized data strings for online investigation and control, evaluation and auction, collection and distribution of money related to the cases, restriction of consumption for credit-related punished people, matters entrusted and electronic files generated with the case to enable enforcement officers and police staff to handle enforcement matters more conveniently at anytime and anywhere.

  V. Fully taping the tremendous potential of blockchain connectivity to enhance judicial collaboration

  (18) Improving collaboration in verifying lawyers’ qualifications. In response to the needs of verifying lawyers’ qualifications, it is necessary to realize interoperation collaborative application between the people’s courts and administrative organs, to enable online inquiry and verification of qualifications and credit reports of lawyers in litigation activities, with higher time efficiency.

  (19) Improving collaboration in case handling between political and legal organs. To facilitate cross-departmental collaboration in operation involved in abatement from penalty, release on parole, criminal, civil and commercial cases and certification of citizenship, it is necessary to realize interoperation collaborative application between the people’s courts and procuratorial, public security, judicial, administrative and other organs, so as to improve the efficiency of online case circulation and data mutual trust.

  (20) Improving the capability of cross-departmental collaborative enforcement. To facilitate investigation and control of property subject to enforcement and cooperative punishment for judgment debtors subject to enforcement, it is necessary to realize interoperation collaborative application between the people’s courts and organs involved in administrative law enforcement, immovable property registration, financial securities and insurance, or organs cooperatively imposing credit-based punishment, etc. and develop a model of automatically carrying out investigation and control in enforcement and imposing credit-based punishment, so as to improve the working efficiency of collaborative enforcement.

  VI. Leveraging properties of the blockchain alliance of mutual recognition and trustworthiness to facilitate economic and social governance

  (21) Protecting intellectual property. It is necessary to build an interoperation collaborative mechanism with blockchain platforms for intellectual property, such as copyrights, trademarks and patents, and enable inquiry about and verification of information related to intellectual property ownership, registration, transfer and others to facilitate the evidence identification of intellectual property cases, so as to further push forward the implementation of the national innovation-driven development strategy.

  (22) Supporting the improvement of the business environment. It is necessary to build an interoperation collaborative mechanism with blockchain platforms for market regulation, property registration, transactions and others, and enable inquiry about and verification of information related to the ownership registration and status of transactions, such as basic business profile, variation of corporate equities, correlation between businesses, ownership of immovables and movables, financial leasing, precious metal trading, to facilitate the identification of ownership and transactions of property rights, so as to intensify the development of the classified and categorized supervision system based on data and credit, and to further improve the national business environment.

  (23) Underpinning data development and utilization. It is necessary to build an interoperation collaborative mechanism with blockchain platforms, such as data ownership, online data trading, etc., and enable inquiry about and verification of information related to data ownership confirmation and data trading and other processes as well as handling of smart contracts, to propel the construction of data markets and the release of data value, so as to better facilitate the implementation of the national big data strategy.

  (24) Supporting circulation and application of financial information. It is necessary to build an interoperation collaborative mechanism with blockchain platforms of financial institutions, and enable inquiry about and verification of information related to approval, performance and default of financial loan contracts and credit cards as well as handling of smart contracts, so as to better contribute to preventing and resolving financial risks.

  (25) Supporting bankruptcy and restructuring of enterprises. It is necessary to build an interoperation collaborative mechanism with blockchain platforms of relevant government departments, and enable interoperability and sharing of business information of debtor enterprises and information related to litigation and enforcement, and enable online verification and cross-examination of information of submission of creditor claims, strengthen open and transparent verification of creditor claims while safeguarding the right to information and access of all creditors, and further ensure the voting effectiveness of online creditors’ meetings to better serve the rescue and exit of market entities.

  (26) Facilitating the construction of the credit system. It is necessary to build an interoperation collaborative mechanism with the National Credit Information Sharing Platform, the National Enterprise Credit Information Publicity System, and credit-breaking punishment organs, and enable inquiry about and online verification of information of the blacklist of judgment debtors and people banned from high-spending as well as handling of smart contracts, to make sure the judgment debtors’ information is generated reliably, transmitted securely and used compliantly, so as to further develop the function of cooperative punishment for credit-breaking individuals, contribute to improving the new credit-based supervision mechanism, and push forward the construction of the social credit system.

  VII. Guarantee measures

  (27) Cementing organizational leadership. People’s courts at all levels shall attach great importance to the development and application of blockchain in the judicial field, strengthen coordination, and specify leading departments in charge of overall progress and management of blockchain application.

  (28) Establishing a collaborative mechanism. People’s courts at all levels shall coordinate priorities of blockchain application in their respective jurisdictions, unite political and legal departments, social organs and other forces to strengthen the collaborative working mechanism, jointly promoting blockchain application in the judicial field.

  (29) Strengthening support. People’s courts at all levels shall incorporate blockchain application into the development plan of smart courts for coordinated implementation, and combine it with innovation of social governance of local governments, to seek funding support and expedite the progress.

  (30) Paying attention to demonstration projects. People’s courts at all levels shall choose relatively mature application scenarios to launch demonstration projects, with focus on needs of the economic and social development and the business needs of the people's courts, to form innovative models that can be reproduced and popularized.

  (31) Ensuring security and reliability. People’s courts at all levels shall optimize the pre-review, testing and evaluating mechanism to make sure the authenticity, accuracy and compliance of the stored data on the blockchain as well as the consistency of data on and off the chain, and make sure the legality, effectiveness, security and reliability of smart contracts.

  (32) Taking active steps towards publicity and guidance. People’s courts at all levels shall intensify publicity and promotion of best practices, and provide training on blockchain application for court officers and police staff, to improve the effects of blockchain application in the judicial field on all fronts.

  The Supreme People’s Court

  May 23, 2022

责任编辑:刘帆
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